AO3 The biological explanation could also be criticised for taking a reductionist approach in explaining aggression as it only represents the nature side of the nature-nurture debate.
There are many studies and evidence that has been collected to support the idea of hormonal and neural mechanisms in aggression, but there are also many issues with this suggestion, and so cannot be universalised. Serotonin usually keeps the amygdala under control so that the emotional responses are disciplined.
Explaining aggression through neural and hormonal mechanisms has been criticised for being reductionist.
They castrated mice and found that they displayed lower levels of aggression then they had before: A study that criticises the Neural and hormonal mechanisms in aggression that hormones can have an effect on aggressive behaviour was conducted by Capsi in Some evidence for the importance of serotonin in aggression comes from studies of non-human animals.
Neural and hormonal mechanisms in aggression, including the roles of the limbic system, serotonin and testosterone. Badawy found a link between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour, however this is only a correlational relationship and other factors, such as alcohol consumption because of depression depression is also linked to low serotonin levels confuse the issue.
On the 11th day, the rat was not allowed to fight, and researchers measured the levels of serotonin and dopamine in its brain. In this statement, scientists from 12 different countries formally challenged a number of popular beliefs based on scientific findings with animals and humans that had been used to justify violent behaviour in humans.
Similarly the use of drugs to reduce dopamine levels dopamine antagonists has been found to be effective in controlling aggression in delinquent juveniles Buitelaar, Similarly, Buitelaar et al found the use of dopamine antagonists have been used successfully as a way of reducing aggressive behaviour in violent delinquents.
A meta-analysis of studies that had examines neurotransmitter levels in antisocial children and adults found lower levels in those individuals described as 'aggressive' but no difference in dopamine levels for these individuals when compared to 'normal' individuals.
Evidence for the role of serotonin comes from the use of drugs that raise levels of serotonin in the brain, such as antidepressants. It is thought to act on brain areas involved in controlling aggression, thus influencing aggression. This suggests testosterone increases aggression.
For example, the increased rates of aggressive behaviour found in the schizophrenic population are believed to be due to the raised levels of dopamine in the brain.
They found that aggressive participants had lower levels of 5-HIAA than the non-aggressive participants, which again supports an association between low serotonin activity and aggression. Brown et al supports this claim.
Participants who were given testosterone made fairer offers than those given a placebo. They examined serotonin and dopamine levels in antisocial adults and children, and found that low serotonin levels consistently, but no significant rise or fall in dopamine levels, this suggests that dopamine has no effect on aggression, instead only serotonin has an influencing effect.
Supporting Research Stanley et al. However, evidence for the causal role of dopamine in aggression is inconclusive. AO2 It is also reductionist as it takes a simplistic views in explaining of the complexity human behaviour.
Dopamine Dopamine has been linked with aggressive behaviour following observations that people who take drugs that increase dopamine levels, for example amphetamines, display more aggressive behaviour. Research has found that victims of violent suicide had increased numbers of serotonin receptors in the prefrontal cortex Arora and Meltzer, Evaluation Research support for the influence of both serotonin and dopamine in aggressive behaviour is provided by Ferrari et al Alcohol consumption interferes with the metabolism of serotonin in the brain.
Another hypothesis is that cortisol, and therefore feelings of stress, mediate the acts that people carry out, but that some people produce less cortisol and therefore feel less stressed when committing acts of violence against others.
However, this assumes that suicide is inwardly directed aggression. Neural and hormonal mechanisms in aggression Neurotransmitters NTs are chemicals enabling impulses within brain to be transmitted from one area to another Low levels of serotonin and high levels of dopamine have been associated with aggression in animals and humans.
It is very difficult to effectively research the role of dopamine in aggression and establish a causal link, due to the fact that dopamine is an essential neurotransmitter for many behaviours including the control of movement.
Dexenfluramine is a drug that depletes levels of serotonin in the brain. There is also research that challenges this link altogether. When the testosterone was then put back into the mice, they began to show their normal levels of aggression again. AO2 Dopamine and aggression — AO1 It is believed that high levels of dopamine are associated with aggression.
A criticism of these links between neurotransmitters, hormones and aggression is that they can be described as reductionist.Transcript of Neural, Hormonal, and Genetic Factors in Aggression. Neural, Hormonal, and Genetic Factors in Aggression NEUROTRANSMITTERS Serotonin HORMONAL MECHANISMS GENETIC FACTORS Cortisol Biological mechanisms and aggression is well established in non-human animals, but unclear in humans.
Discuss Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression Essay. The two neurotransmitters that are believed to be the most associated with aggression are low levels of serotonin and high levels of dopamine - Discuss Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression Essay introduction.
These two chemicals allow impulses to be transmitted to another area; therefore all behaviours are influenced by. Neural and hormonal mechanisms in aggression, including the roles of the limbic system, serotonin and testosterone.
Genetic factors in aggression, including the MAOA gene. Neural Mechanisms Serotonin Much of the research on the role of neurotransmitters on aggression has focussed on serotonin activity.
Neural and hormonal mechanisms in aggression. Neurotransmitters. NTs are chemicals enabling impulses within brain to be transmitted from one area to another. Outline and evaluate neural and hormonal mechanisms in aggression (8 + 16 marks) - Biological explanations offer a completely different perspective to the explanation of human aggression.
The role of neural mechanisms on aggression Serotonin as a Neurotransmitters According to several studies on serotonin which is a neurotransmitter influences the .Download